Cite references research paper apa

Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there.
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According to Jones , APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners Jones, , p. Citing an Author or Authors. Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses.

Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al. Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al.

Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles and chapters are in quotation marks. Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source. If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.

Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list, separated by a semi-colon. Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication.

Do not include personal communication in the reference list. If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses. Note: When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited.

If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading. Note that in some electronic sources, like Web pages, people can use the Find function in their browser to locate any passages you cite. Research Help: Search this Guide Search. Use the navigation on the left to learn more. Beins Call Number: BF B Using eye tracking metrics, galvanic skin response, and facial expression measures in tandem with a scale aimed at measuring visual design quality has a couple of identifiable benefits.

Using both can potentially identify patterns amongst the biometric measures and the questionnaire, which would strengthen the validity of the results. More so, the eye tracking data has the potential to identify patterns amongst websites of lower or higher quality. If found, these patterns can be used to evaluate particular aspects of a page that are impacting the quality of a webpage. Overall, we are interested in answering two questions:.


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Research Question 1 : Can attitudinal changes regarding substantial website redesigns be captured using biometric measures? Research Question 2 : How do biometric measures correlate with self-reported measures of visual appeal? Answering these questions has the potential to provide a method of justification for design changes, ranging from minor tweak to complete rebrands. There is not an easy way for companies to quantitatively analyze visual design decisions. A method for doing so would help companies evaluate visual designs before implementation in order to cost-justify them.

To this end, we hope to demonstrate that biometric measurements can be used with questionnaires to verify and validate potential design changes a company or organization might want to implement.

APA Style: Citing Your Sources

During this assessment we collected GSR, facial expressions limited by errors in initial study configuration , pupillary response, and fixation data using iMotions software coupled with a Tobii eye tracker, Shimmer GSR device, and Affdex facial expression analysis toolkit. This data was analyzed, in Table 2, to discover relationships between the independent and dependent variables, as well as relationships between certain dependent variables.

Jones, C. Influences of retail brand trust, off-line patronage, clothing involvement and website quality on online apparel shopping intention: Online apparel shopping intention. International Journal of Consumer Studies , 34 6 , — Kuan, H.

16 posts categorized "Websites"

Comparing the effects of website quality on customer initial purchase and continued purchase at e-commerce websites. Lin, H. The impact of website quality dimensions on customer satisfaction in the B2C e-commerce context. Stojmenovic, M. Perceived and objective usability and visual appeal in a website domain with a less developed mental model. Diversity The layout is pleasantly varied. Difference p Joy Kitchen 3. Final Checklist Prior to submitting your paper, check to make sure you have everything you need and everything in its place:.

Congratulations for making it this far! Most cover letters ask you to include:. Can we offer one last suggestion?

Using APA style for references and citations

We promise it will only take a minute. Consider running your paper through our handy dandy paper checker. Copy and paste or upload your paper into our checker. If it sounds too good to be true, then head on over to our innovative tool and give it a whirl. Upload a paper to check for plagiarism against billions of sources and get advanced writing suggestions for clarity and style. Get Started. Social sciences can include: Sociology Anthropology Economics Political Science Human Geography Archaeology Linguistics Many other fields and subject areas regularly use this style too.

Information related to writing and organizing your paper: Paper and essay categories General paper length Margin sizes Title pages Running Heads — How to format running heads, with samples Preparing APA format outlines How to form an abstract The body of most scientific papers Proper usage of APA format headings and subheadings Use of graphics tables and figures B. Complete sample paper E. Final checklist F.

Writing and Organizing Your Paper in an Effective Way This section of our guide focuses on proper paper length, how to format headings, spacing, and more! Categories of papers Empirical studies Empirical studies take data from observations and experiments to generate research reports.

The purpose is to gather information about a current issue or problem and to communicate where we are today. It sheds light on issues and attempts to fill those gaps with suggestions for future research and methods. It is different from literature reviews in that it attempts to explain or solve a problem by coming up with a new theory. This theory is justified with valid evidence. Methodological articles These articles showcase new advances, or modifications to an existing practice, in a scientific method or procedure.

The author has data or documentation to prove that their new method, or improvement to a method, is valid. Plenty of evidence is included in this type of article. In addition, the author explains the current method being used in addition to their own findings, in order to allow the reader to understand and modify their own current practices.

Case studies Case studies present information related an individual, group, or larger set of individuals.

In-Text Citations: The Basics // Purdue Writing Lab

These subjects are analyzed for a specific reason and the author reports on the method and conclusions from their study. Margin sizes When it comes to margins, keep them consistent across the left, right, top, and bottom of the page. Title pages The title page, or APA format cover page, is the first page of a paper or essay. Here are key guidelines to developing your title page: The title of the paper should capture the main idea of the essay, but should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose.

The title should be centered on the page and typed in point, Times New Roman font. Do not underline, bold, or italicize the title. Your title may take up one or two lines, but should not be more than 12 words in length.


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All text on the title page should be double-spaced. The APA format examples paper below displays proper spacing, so go take a look! The institutional affiliation is the school the author attends or the location where the author conducted the research. Sample of an APA format title page: 5. The header should look like this on the other pages: 6. Preparing outlines Outlines are extremely beneficial as they help writers stay organized, determine the scope of the research that needs to be included, and establish headings and subheadings.

How to form an abstract An APA format abstract is a summary of a scholarly article or scientific study. Here are some helpful suggestions to create a dynamic abstract: Abstracts are found on their own page, directly after the title or cover page. Include the running head on the top of the page. On the following line, write a summary of the key points of your research.

Your abstract summary is a way to introduce readers to your research topic, the questions that will be answered, the process you took, and any findings or conclusions you drew. Use concise, brief, informative language. You only have a few sentences to share the summary of your entire document, so be direct with your wording. This summary should not be indented, but should be double-spaced and less than words. If applicable, help researchers find your work in databases by listing keywords from your paper after your summary.

To do this, indent and type Keywords : in italics. Then list your keywords that stand out in your research.