Introduction Datuk Seri Dr Mahathir Mohamad, the fourth Prime Minister of Malaysia This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service.
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The ban was only lifted after Mahathir became prime minister in ; he thus served as a minister and deputy prime minister while being the author of a banned book. Milne and Diane K. Mauzy argue that Mahathir's relentless attacks were the principal cause of Abdul Rahman's downfall and subsequent resignation as prime minister in Abdul Rahman resigned in and was replaced by Abdul Razak Hussein. Razak encouraged Mahathir back into the party, and had him appointed as a Senator in He also returned to the House of Representatives , winning the Kedah-based seat of Kubang Pasu unopposed in the election.
The contest was considered to be a battle for the succession of the party's leadership, with both Razak and his deputy, Hussein Onn , in declining health. When Razak died the following year, Hussein as his successor was forced to choose between the three men to be deputy prime minister; he also considered the ambitious minister Ghazali Shafie. Each of Mahathir's rivals had significant political liabilities: Ghazali, having been defeated by the others for a vice-presidency, lacked the support of UMNO members; Ghafar had no higher education and was not fluent in English; and Razaleigh was young, inexperienced and, critically, unmarried.
But Hussein's decision was not easy. Hussein and Mahathir were not close allies, and Hussein knew the choice of Mahathir would displease Abdul Rahman, still alive and revered as the father of Malaysia's independence. After six weeks of indecision Mahathir was, much to his surprise, appointed as Hussein's deputy. The appointment meant that Mahathir was the anointed successor to the prime ministership. However, Mahathir was not an influential deputy prime minister. Hussein was a cautious leader who rejected many of Mahathir's bold policy proposals.
While the relationship between Hussein and Mahathir was distant, Ghazali and Razaleigh became Hussein's closest advisers, often bypassing the more senior Mahathir when accessing Hussein.
Nonetheless, when Hussein relinquished power due to ill health in , Mahathir succeeded him unopposed and with his blessing. Mahathir was sworn in as prime minister on 16 July , at the age of Mahathir exercised caution in his first two years in power, consolidating his leadership of UMNO and, with victory in the general election , the government. The position of Yang di-Pertuan Agong , the Malaysian head of state, was due to rotate in to either the elderly Idris Shah II of Perak or the controversial Iskandar of Johor , who had only a few years earlier been convicted of manslaughter.
Thus Mahathir had grave reservations about the two Sultans, who were both activist rulers of their own states. The proposal would also remove the power to declare a state of emergency from the Agong and place it with the prime minister. The Agong at the time, Ahmad Shah of Pahang , agreed with the proposals in principle but baulked when he realised that the proposal would also deem Sultans to assent to laws passed by state assemblies.
Supported by the Sultans, the Agong refused to assent to the constitutional amendments, which had by then passed both houses of Parliament with comfortable majorities. The press took the side of the government, although a large minority of Malays, including conservative UMNO politicians, and an even larger proportion of the Chinese community supported the Sultans.
After five months, the crisis resolved, as Mahathir and the Sultans agreed to a compromise. The Agong would retain the power to declare a state of emergency, but if he refused to assent to a bill, the bill would be returned to Parliament, which could then override the Agong's veto.
On the economic front, Mahathir inherited the New Economic Policy from his predecessors, which was designed to improve the economic position of the bumiputera Malaysia's Malays and indigenous peoples through targets and affirmative action in areas such as corporate ownership and university admission.
One of the most notable infrastructure projects at the time was the construction of the North—South Expressway , a motorway running from the Thai border to Singapore; the contract to construct the expressway was awarded to a business venture of UMNO. By the end of the s, Proton had overcome poor demand and losses to become, with the support of protective tariffs, the largest car maker in Southeast Asia and a profitable enterprise. In Mahathir's early years as prime minister, Malaysia was experiencing a resurgence of Islam among Malays. Malays were becoming more religious and more conservative.
PAS, which had in the s joined UMNO in government, responded to the resurgence by taking an increasingly strident Islamist stand under the leadership of the man who in had defeated Mahathir for his parliamentary seat, Yusof Rawa. Mahathir tried to appeal to religious voters by establishing Islamic institutions such as the International Islamic University of Malaysia which could promote Islamic education under the government's oversight.
In some cases, Mahathir's government employed repression against more extreme exponents of Islamism. Ibrahim Libya, a popular Islamist leader, was killed in a police shoot-out in ; Al-Arqam , a religious sect, was banned and its leader, Ashaari Mohammad , arrested under the Internal Security Act.
Any illusion that the election may have created about Mahathir's political dominance was short-lived. Razaleigh's career had gone backwards under Mahathir, being demoted from the Ministry of Finance to the Ministry of Trade and Industry. Razaleigh was supported by Musa, who had resigned as deputy prime minister the previous year. While Musa and Mahathir were originally close allies, the two had fallen out during Mahathir's premiership, with Musa claiming that Mahathir no longer trusted him.
The tickets were known as Team B and Team A respectively. Mahathir's Team A enjoyed the support of the press, most party heavyweights, and even Iskandar, now the Agong, although some significant figures such as Abdullah Badawi supported Team B. In the election, held on 24 April , Team A prevailed.
Mahathir was re-elected a by a narrow margin, receiving the votes of party delegates to Razaleigh's Ghafar defeated Musa by a slightly larger margin. Mahathir responded by purging seven Team B supporters from his ministry, while Team B refused to accept defeat and initiated litigation. In an unexpected decision in February , the High Courts ruled that UMNO was an illegal organisation as some of its branches had not been lawfully registered. Each faction raced to register a new party under the UMNO name. Mahathir then suspended Salleh for "gross misbehaviour and conduct", ostensibly because the letter was a breach of protocol.
A tribunal set up by Mahathir found Salleh guilty and recommended to the Agong that Salleh be dismissed. Five other judges of the court supported Salleh, and were suspended by Mahathir. According to Milne and Mauzy, the episode destroyed the independence of Malaysia's judiciary.
At the same time as the political and judicial crises, Mahathir initiated a crackdown on opposition dissidents with the use of the Internal Security Act. Mahathir later declared that it was only used to lock up people accused of riots, unlawful assembly, terrorism and those who have murdered police officers. Instead, Mahathir ordered what Wain calls "the biggest crackdown on political dissent Malaysia had ever seen".
Under the police operation codenamed " Operation Lalang ", people were arrested and detained without charge under the Internal Security Act. Mahathir argued that the detentions were necessary to prevent a repeat of the race riots. Three newspapers sympathetic to the opposition were shut down.
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In , he announced Vision , under which Malaysia would aim to become a fully developed country within 30 years. Vision was accompanied by the NEP's replacement, the National Development Policy NDP , under which some government programs designed to benefit the bumiputera exclusively were opened up to other ethnicities. By , less than nine per cent of Malaysians lived in poverty and income inequality had narrowed. The economy grew by over nine per cent per annum until prompting other developing countries to try to emulate Mahathir's policies.
Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad Essay
Mahathir initiated a series of major infrastructure projects in the s. One of the largest was the Multimedia Super Corridor , an area south of Kuala Lumpur , in the mould of Silicon Valley , designed to cater for the information technology industry. However, the project failed to generate the investment anticipated.
Other Mahathir projects included the development of Putrajaya as the home of Malaysia's public service, and bringing a Formula One Grand Prix to Sepang. One of the most controversial developments was the Bakun Dam in Sarawak. The ambitious hydro-electric project was intended to carry electricity across the South China Sea to satisfy electricity demand in peninsular Malaysia. Work on the dam was eventually suspended due to the Asian financial crisis.
In , the Asian financial crisis which began in Thailand in mid threatened to devastate Malaysia. The value of the ringgit plummeted due to currency speculation, foreign investment fled, and the main stock exchange index fell by over 75 per cent. At the urging of the International Monetary Fund IMF , the government cut government spending and raised interest rates, which only served to exacerbate the economic situation. In , in a controversial approach Mahathir reversed this policy course in defiance of the IMF and his own deputy, Anwar. He increased government spending and fixed the ringgit to the US dollar.
Essay about Inspirational Doctor: Biography of Dr. Mahathir -- malaysi
The result confounded his international critics and the IMF. Malaysia recovered from the crisis faster than its Southeast Asian neighbours. In the domestic sphere , it was a political triumph. Amidst the economic events of , Mahathir had dismissed Anwar as finance minister and deputy prime minister, and he could now claim to have rescued the economy in spite of Anwar's policies.
In his second decade in office, Mahathir had again found himself battling Malaysia's royalty. In , Sultan Iskandar's son, a representative hockey player, was suspended from competition for five years for assaulting an opponent. Iskandar retaliated by pulling all Johor hockey teams out of national competitions. When his decision was criticised by a local coach, Iskandar ordered him to his palace and beat him. The federal parliament unanimously censured Iskandar, and Mahathir leapt at the opportunity to remove the constitutional immunity of the sultans from civil and criminal suits.
The press backed Mahathir and, in an unprecedented development, started airing allegations of misconduct by members of Malaysia's royal families. As the press revealed examples of the rulers' extravagant wealth, Mahathir resolved to cut financial support to royal households. With the press and the government pitted against them, the sultans capitulated to the government's proposals.