Free Essay: The Truth about Teenage Pregnancy Outline I. Introduction II. Body A . Causes 1. Lack of sexual education 2. Lack of.
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The pregnancy rate in this group, although falling, rose slightly in , to Young women often think of contraception either as 'the pill' or condoms and have little knowledge about other methods. They are heavily influenced by negative, second-hand stories about methods of contraception from their friends and the media. Prejudices are extremely difficult to overcome.
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Over concern about side-effects, for example weight gain and acne , often affect choice. Missing up to three pills a month is common, and in this age group the figure is likely to be higher. Restarting after the pill-free week, having to hide pills, drug interactions and difficulty getting repeat prescriptions can all lead to method failure. In the U.
The results were that In a study, over 1, females were surveyed to find out factors contributing to not using contraception. Of those surveyed, almost half had been involved in unprotected sex within the previous three months. These women gave three main reasons for not using contraceptives: trouble obtaining birth control the most frequent reason , lack of intention to have sex, and the misconception that they "could not get pregnant".
In a study for The Guttmacher Institute , researchers found that from a comparative perspective, however, teenage pregnancy rates in the U. Among teens in the UK seeking an abortion, a study found that the rate of contraceptive use was roughly the same for teens as for older women. In other cases, contraception is used, but proves to be inadequate.
Inexperienced adolescents may use condoms incorrectly, forget to take oral contraceptives , or fail to use the contraceptives they had previously chosen. Contraceptive failure rates are higher for teenagers, particularly poor ones, than for older users. According to The Encyclopedia of Women's Health, published in , there has been an increased effort to provide contraception to adolescents via family planning services and school-based health, such as HIV prevention education.
Multiple studies have indicated a strong link between early childhood sexual abuse and subsequent teenage pregnancy in industrialized countries. In some countries, sexual intercourse between a minor and an adult is not considered consensual under the law because a minor is believed to lack the maturity and competence to make an informed decision to engage in fully consensual sex with an adult. In those countries, sex with a minor is therefore considered statutory rape. In most European countries, by contrast, once an adolescent has reached the age of consent, he or she can legally have sexual relations with adults because it is held that in general although certain limitations may still apply , reaching the age of consent enables a juvenile to consent to sex with any partner who has also reached that age.
Therefore, the definition of statutory rape is limited to sex with a person under the minimum age of consent. What constitutes statutory rape ultimately differs by jurisdiction see age of consent. Studies have indicated that adolescent girls are often in abusive relationships at the time of their conceiving.
Girls under age 18 are twice as likely to be beaten by their child's father than women over age Similar results have been found in studies in the U. Teenage pregnancy has been defined predominantly within the research field and among social agencies as a social problem.
Poverty is associated with increased rates of teenage pregnancy. Males noted that teenage birth rates closely mapped poverty rates in California : . Teen pregnancy cost the U. There is little evidence to support the common belief that teenage mothers become pregnant to get benefits, welfare, and council housing. Most knew little about housing or financial aid before they got pregnant and what they thought they knew often turned out to be wrong. Women exposed to abuse, domestic violence , and family strife in childhood are more likely to become pregnant as teenagers, and the risk of becoming pregnant as a teenager increases with the number of adverse childhood experiences.
The researchers note that "family dysfunction has enduring and unfavorable health consequences for women during the adolescent years, the childbearing years, and beyond. Studies have also found that girls whose fathers left the family early in their lives had the highest rates of early sexual activity and adolescent pregnancy. Girls whose fathers left them at a later age had a lower rate of early sexual activity, and the lowest rates are found in girls whose fathers were present throughout their childhood. Even when the researchers took into account other factors that could have contributed to early sexual activity and pregnancy, such as behavioral problems and life adversity, early father-absent girls were still about five times more likely in the U.
Low educational expectations have been pinpointed as a risk factor. Foster care youth are more likely than their peers to become pregnant as teenagers.
A University of Chicago study of youth transitioning out of foster care in Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin found that nearly half of the females had been pregnant by age The Utah Department of Human Services found that girls who had left the foster care system between and had a birth rate nearly 3 times the rate for girls in the general population. A study conducted in found that adolescents who were more exposed to sexuality in the media were also more likely to engage in sexual activity themselves. According to Time , "teens exposed to the most sexual content on TV are twice as likely as teens watching less of this material to become pregnant before they reach age 20".
Comprehensive sex education and access to birth control appear to reduce unplanned teenage pregnancy. The Dutch approach to preventing teenage pregnancy has often been seen as a model by other countries. The curriculum focuses on values, attitudes, communication and negotiation skills, as well as biological aspects of reproduction. The media has encouraged open dialogue and the health-care system guarantees confidentiality and a non-judgmental approach. Some schools provide abstinence-only sex education.maisonducalvet.com/islantilla-app-para-conocer-gente.php
Sample Cause and Effect Essay on Teen Pregnancy - Write a Writing
Evidence does not support the effectiveness of abstinence-only sex education. On September 30, , the U. The money is being awarded "to states, non-profit organizations, school districts, universities and others. These grants will support the replication of teen pregnancy prevention programs that have been shown to be effective through rigorous research as well as the testing of new, innovative approaches to combating teen pregnancy.
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In the developing world, programs of reproductive health aimed at teenagers are often small scale and not centrally coordinated, although some countries such as Sri Lanka have a systematic policy framework for teaching about sex within schools. Laws against child marriage have reduced but not eliminated the practice. Improved female literacy and educational prospects have led to an increase in the age at first birth in areas such as Iran , Indonesia , and the Indian state of Kerala. A team of researchers and educators in California have published a list of "best practices" in the prevention of teen pregnancy, which includes, in addition to the previously mentioned concepts, working to "instill a belief in a successful future", male involvement in the prevention process, and designing interventions that are culturally relevant.
In reporting teenage pregnancy rates, the number of pregnancies per 1, females aged 15 to 19 when the pregnancy ends is generally used.
Worldwide, teenage pregnancy rates range from per in some sub-Saharan African countries to 2. Every year, some 3 million girls in this age bracket resort to unsafe abortions, risking their lives and health. According to a UNICEF survey, in 10 out of 12 developed nations with available data, more than two thirds of young people have had sexual intercourse while still in their teens. In Australia, the UK and the U. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth are the leading cause of mortality among women aged 15—19 in such areas.
The highest rate of teenage pregnancy in the world is in sub-Saharan Africa , where women tend to marry at an early age. In the Indian subcontinent , early marriage sometimes results in adolescent pregnancy, particularly in rural regions where the rate is much higher than it is in urbanized areas. Latest data suggests that teen pregnancy in India is high with 62 pregnant teens out of every 1, women. The rates of early marriage and pregnancy in some Asian countries are high. In recent years, the rates have decreased sharply in Indonesia and Malaysia , [ citation needed ] although it remains relatively high in the former.
However, in the industrialized Asian nations such as South Korea and Singapore , teenage birth rates remain among the lowest in the world. In , the birth rate among teenage women in Australia was The overall trend in Europe since has been a decreasing total fertility rate , an increase in the age at which women experience their first birth, and a decrease in the number of births among teenagers.
This is varyingly attributed to good sex education and high levels of contraceptive use in the case of the Netherlands and Scandinavia , traditional values and social stigmatization in the case of Spain and Italy or both in the case of Switzerland. On the other hand, the teen birth rate is very high in Bulgaria and Romania. The teen pregnancy rate in England and Wales was There were 5, pregnancies in girls aged under 18 in the three months to June , data from the Office for National Statistics shows.
This compares with 6, in the same period in and 7, for the June quarter the year before that. Historically, the UK has had one of the highest teenage pregnancy and abortion rates in Western Europe. There are no comparable rates for conceptions across Europe, but the under birth rate suggests England is closing the gap. The under birth rate in in England and Wales was 9. However, the UK birth rate has fallen by almost a third In , the UK rate was A spokeswoman for the British Pregnancy Advisory Service said: "Contrary to popular perception, this data shows that the teenage pregnancy rate is falling dramatically in England and Wales.
While the UK has historically had a high teenage conception rate, it is now at its lowest level on record and not significantly out of step with other European countries. But it also reflects broader societal shifts, with younger women quite rightly expecting and able to pursue educational and professional ambitions. In , the teenage birth rate in the U.