Peer pressure adolescence research paper

A research paper on peer pressure in teenagers, therefore, identifies the social phenomenon which often happens to young teenagers. In case.
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Positive Giving up bad habits and helps teenagers by motivating them to do their best. Thesis Statement : Peer Pressure affect teenagers to cultivate bad habits from surroundings and it can lead to loss of individuality and integrity. On the positive side, peer pressure help teenagers to give…. I am not going to listen to you.

1. Introduction

So the word is actually considered as negatively. Every person is independent and all have their own thinking and personality, but…. Many Teenagers have to go through peer pressure either in middle school or high school.


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Peer Pressure can be negative or positive depending on whom you hang out with. Peer pressure changes many people lives it can become problematic as children grow seeing their peers as role models. The findings suggest that teenage peer pressure has a distinct effect on brain signals involving risk and reward, helping to explain why young people are more likely to misbehave and take risks when their friends are watching. Hormones and the stress of every day life may create….


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The Effects of Peer Pressure It happens every single day around the United States, even in my community; another teen succumbs to the temptations all young people face while in high school. Drug and alcohol usage has become an epidemic, primarily due to peer pressure.

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More than fifty percent of teenagers from ages twelve through twenty have experienced with alcohol at least once in their lives, statistics indicate that adolescences that drink or utilize drugs are more likely to behave in a violent…. Teenagers have felt the pressure of drugs and the need for social acceptance for decades.

Many choose to cope by internalizing their emotions or acting out.

Adolescent risk-takers: The power of peers

In the s, one young teenager, who remains anonymous but is referred to as Alice, decided to document her personal descent into drug addiction in a diary entitled Go Ask Alice. While there is some debate on the authenticity of the story, the powerful message of the dangers of drug abuse remains relevant. For over forty years, this book has…. Essays Essays FlashCards. Browse Essays. Show More. Also, the majority of teens with a substance abuse problem resulted from peer pressure.

Temptations, taunts, and threats can really hurt someone, or put them in a dangerous situation. There is also a lot of insecurity due to wanting to fit it in but not deal with the emotional as well as the physical side of peer pressure. Kids might feel as if giving into peer pressure will just magically solve their problems, but that is incorrect, in reality, it will just cause more problems.

Free Peer Pressure Essays and Papers

There are two types of peer pressure, spoken and unspoken. Spoken pressure is something that is said directly towards you that puts a lot of pressure on you. Chances are, if a situation feels wrong, then it is most likely wrong.

Essay The Effects Of Peer Pressure On Teenagers Most teenagers weekend consists of going out to a family party or hanging out with friends and forming new memories and great experiences, but not all teenager weekends consist of harm befalling upon them. Read More. Words: - Pages: 4. Words: - Pages: 5. Peer Pressure Research Paper her in making the research. Even though the participant had a lower payoff for the fair than for the unfair option, disappointed reactions led to more generous offers than angry or happy reactions.

Young adolescents seemed to differentiate less between the three emotions compared to late adolescents. Based on previous research with adult participants Van Dijk et al. Angry expressions indeed led to more unfair offers than disappointed expressions, which emphasizes the importance of studying discrete emotional expressions instead of valence alone.

Both anger and disappointment are reactions to undesirable behavior of others, and both communicate a wish for a behavioral change in the other Van Dijk and Zeelenberg, However, a difference between disappointment and anger is that disappointment might lead to more fair offers via a feeling of guilt, whereas anger might instead lead to more unfair offers when communicated from a low-power position which was the case in our study because of reciprocal anger Lelieveld et al.

Disappointment also differs from anger and happiness because it is regarded more complex than the basic emotions of anger and happiness. However, research suggests that disappointment and anger are two of the most frequently expressed negative emotions Van Dijk and Zeelenberg, ; Lelieveld et al. We were interested how different negative emotions that signal dissatisfaction would impact offers by adolescents. Future studies may include other basic emotions such as sadness to contrast different basic emotions.

The current results from an adolescent sample differ partly from previous findings using the same paradigm with adults Lelieveld et al. The adolescents in our study made more unfair offers in response to happy and angry reactions compared to disappointed reactions, while the adults in the Lelieveld et al. When reading happy reactions the adolescents possibly inferred that the happy other was satisfied with the previous unfair offer, and accordingly chose more unfair offers Van Kleef et al.

This is in line with the idea that the general function of positive emotions is to serve as a cue to continue the current course of action Cacioppo and Gardner, Previous studies with adults showed this pattern of utilization of happiness as well Van Kleef et al. However, the effect of happiness was mainly driven by the proself SVO participants in the oldest age group in our sample see below.

Our analyses did not reveal any effects of age on the total amount of unfair offers. Previous studies also found that fairness preferences as measured with the Dictator Game do not seem to change substantially after childhood Gummerum et al. However, since older adolescents are better at considering consequences of their decisions for others Crone, and we expected the adolescents to increasingly take the situational context i.

Although we did not find an interaction between age and the offers after the different emotions, we did find differences when we compared the interpersonal effects of the discrete emotions within the separate age groups. This analysis suggested that the youngest adolescents did not differentiate between the three emotions, while older adolescents did. Only the older adolescents made less unfair offers in response to disappointed expressions compared to angry and happy expressions.

Possibly, younger adolescents are less able at distinguishing the written emotional expressions, as previously observed for facial expressions of the six basic emotions i.

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However, we have no reason to believe that adolescents did not perceive the correct emotion from the different reactions, since most disappointed, angry, and happy statements contained the words disappointed, angry, or happy respectively or any clear synonym. Verbally presented emotions might also be processed differently with increasing age, as was found in younger children Jenkins and Ball, In addition, more mixed feelings in response to social emotion scenarios have been linked to pubertal development in young adolescents Burnett et al.

Hence, the difference between the youngest and oldest adolescents in the current study seems to reflect an improvement with age in understanding emotions and incorporating emotional information into decision-making.

In addition to behavioral evidence, several neuroimaging studies have revealed that brain regions important for social decisions are changing during adolescence reviewed in Burnett et al. For example, age-related increases in temporo-parietal junction TPJ activation were observed when adolescents played the Trust Game, in which it is important to take the perspective of the other player into account Van den Bos et al.

In adults, heightened TPJ activation in response to happy reactions was found using the paradigm employed in the current study Lelieveld et al. An interesting but speculative direction for future research would be to investigate if the increased amount of unfair offers in response to happiness is related to lower TPJ activity in adolescents compared to adults.

The hypothesis that proselfs would make more unfair offers in general than prosocials was confirmed, although the effect was only marginally significant.

Adolescents’ relationships with their peers

Additionally, as considered above, the higher amount of unfair offers in response to happy reactions in our study can be attributed to proself SVO participants who made more unfair offers than prosocial participants in this condition see Figure 2. Prosocials may have liked the happy others more and therefore may have made less unfair offers. Previous studies have demonstrated that proselfs tend to be more concerned about their own outcomes in allocation games than prosocials Parks, ; Balliet et al. In the current study, proselfs tended to be somewhat more selfish in general, but not univocally egocentric.

Proselfs did not differ from prosocials in their choices after disappointed and angry expressions. It appears that proselfs only act more selfishly in certain situations Ketelaar and Au, ; Van Kleef and Van Lange, , such as acting upon the perceived satisfaction that was signaled by the happy others in our study.

Future research could investigate these underlying mechanisms, and further explore whether SVO also modulates other positive emotions such as gratitude and hope.